Monday, March 23, 2020

10 People Youll Find in High School

Whether youre currently in high school, or you graduated 5 years ago, I bet you can still remember the names of everyone on this list. Dont believe me? Run this list through with me.1. The Overachiever You know, that one kid. You’re sitting in the end-of-the-year honors assembly, trying not to fall asleep, and he/she gets called up for the attendance award. Then the scholastic award. Then the citizenship award, then the†¦ Well, you forgot the rest, but you’re pretty sure he/she won those, too. Wash, rinse and repeat for next year’s honors assembly. 2. The Real-Life Regina George Well, maybe that’s a bit of an exaggeration, but every high school has their mean girls. This one leads the pack, flipping her perfectly curled hair over her shoulder as she swings her brand-new Versace bag and dishes the latest gossip to her posse. And just like Regina, you’ll never see this girl without her hench(wo)men. 3. The Pleasantly Clueless JockHe’s cute, he’s athletic, he always has that slightly confused smile on his face†¦ Welcome to the world of Football/Baseball/Hockey/Basketball/Lacrosse Boy, where everything is a bit of a blur until the big game. There’s nothing harmful about this guy, except for maybe his GPA—but everybody loves him all the same. After all, when he scores the game-winning touchdown, who even remembers what he got on that one chemistry test? 4. THAT CoupleThat’s right, them. Right over there. If you’re in school while reading this, there’s at least one pair in your field of vision right now—oh, there they go. Not only do they spend every waking moment together, but they also seem to be adjoined by the hand—it’s so adorable, you could throw up. And if you catch them cuddling in the very public cafeteria one more time, you probably will. 5. The SleeperWe all know a high schooler’s sleep schedule isn’t always regular, and pairing that with a monotone teacher is a lethal combination. But this kid isn’t your average fall-asleep-once kind of guy—oh, no. He’s snoring by the time class is five minutes in, and the bell won’t even wake him at the end. You think you might’ve seen him in hallway yesterday carrying a Snuggie over his arm, but it could’ve been someone else†¦ On second thought, it was definitely him. 6. The Social Media QueenYou could swear this girl’s phone is merely an extension of her arm. She sits clacking away at the keyboard throughout English and Calculus, flippantly clicks through Snapchat Stories during Physics, and giggles at Tweets during History. If you ever need to know something about someone, you know who to come to—you don’t know how, and maybe you don’t want to know how, but this girl can write a dictionary on any person in the school just by stalking their Instagram. 7. The HipsterIf you admit you are one, you aren’t—this is the ever-confusing paradox of hipster-dom. They don’t seem to mind, though—the overwhelmingly large glasses and loud playing of obscure bands may have obscured some of their senses, buy they get along with most people just fine. 8. The Self-Proclaimed Nerd Thing that needs to be understood: Having glasses does not make you a nerd, increase your intelligence, or alter your personality in any way, shape or form. 9. The Actual NerdGirl, guy or other, nerds are the few and the proud. Being â€Å"nerdy† is just getting really excited about things most people don’t get excited about—sure, the Superbowl is on tonight, but didn’t you read about the newest discovery in the LHC? Nerdship, my friends, is a badge of honor; treat it like one!10. The Person Who Cannot Be Defined by a Simple Stereotype†¦aka, everyone. You might sort your Skittles into little piles of different colors because you know each one of the same hue will taste the same, but it’s wrong- if not dangerous- to attempt to do the same with humans. Although many people in your school probably do, speak and act in the ways of one of these nine caricatures, I can personally guarantee that they are so much more than that. And so are you.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Bsb Versus Sky Tv Essay Example

Bsb Versus Sky Tv Essay Example Bsb Versus Sky Tv Paper Bsb Versus Sky Tv Paper Executive Summary British television viewing levels had stagnated in the 1980s due to already high levels of television viewership (3. 5 hours per day) and the rapid penetration of the VCR. This caused broadcast companies like BBC and ITV to look for new ways to spurn growth. The British government tried to allocate three of the five high powered digital satellite broadcast (DBS) channels first to the BBC and then to a joint venture between BBC and ITV. Both attempts failed due to high startup costs in building and launching dedicated satellites. The bidding for these channels was then moved to the private sector in April 1986. Additionally, the use of the untried D-MAC transmission standard that was viewed as a move towards HDTV was made mandatory. British Satellite Broadcasting (BSB) was to be the first mover and quickly acquired a 15 year franchise for the DBS channels. BSB planned to start broadcasting by the fall of 1989, investing $500 million and projecting to break-even 4 years later. Sky Television a subsidiary of Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation unexpectedly announced its entry into the satellite broadcasting market. Murdoch known for his aggressiveness aimed to start broadcasting from Sky’ leased medium powered satellite by February 1989 becoming the real first mover in the market. This led to an intense battle between BSB and Sky as they fought to gain the upper hand. By October 1990, both BSB and Sky were making combined losses of $10 million per week. BSB’s inability to view the competitive landscape combined with Sky’s aggressive tactics to leverage first mover advantage lead to both companies losing focus on the underlying economics in the launch of what is regarded the second biggest business undertaking in Britain (second only to the Chunnel). BSB’s superior technology has the upper hand long term but, Sky’s overall superior economic model allows it to sustain losses for a longer period possibly outliving BSB’s investor’s faith in the DSB market in Britain. Industry Analysis The British broadcasting business was unable to grow due to a number of reasons, chief among them being the inability to move away from an obsolete revenue model that depended on license or advertising revenue. Pay television that utilized either cable or satellite media was expected to be the next vehicle for growth and with the restrictions imposed on access to cable (available only to remote areas), satellite television soon became the next practical choice. Economics of the DSB business Entering into the satellite broadcasting business was however an expensive proposition exacerbated by a long break-even period. Appendix A details BSB’s business plan assuming no competition (i. e. market share of 100%) in an attempt to determine the most aggressive break-even period. Building and deploying satellites combined with investing in the technology that would allow television sets decipher signals from satellites was estimated to be in the range of $300-$400 million. These numbers point to a ten year break-even given typical British consumer electronics adoption rates (initial BSB market penetration forecasts). An alternate approach at analyzing the economics of the satellite broadcasting business is to fix the break-even period to a reasonable number of years, say 4, (BSB’s initial business plan) and study the consequence on subscriber rates. Appendix B details this analysis in which we find that the typical consumer electronics adoption rate would have to be scaled up by a factor greater than 4. 75 to achieve this reasonable break-even target. BSB’s business plan prior to Sky’s market entry is compared against its’ revised business plan (incorporating effect of market share and increasing advertising and promoting budgets with a view to accelerate sales) in Appendix C and D. Only a well funded corporation that could sustain losses for a long period would be able to make it in this market. Entering the DSB Market In December 1986, BSB, a consortium of five financially sound companies, won a 15 year franchise to the DSB channels in Britain. They immediately set out to raise capital to fund the deployment of two satellites. With the enormous start-up costs and an economic model that expected a market entrant to stay the course of making losses for a minimum of 10 years it was easy to see why BSB refused to view Sky’s movement in the satellite broadcasting business as a serious threat. Sky Television was formed in June of 1988 out of Sky Channel by Rupert Murdoch, of News Corporation. Sky Channel had been using low powered satellite technology for broadcasting since 1983. Although a money loser, this project allowed Murdoch to see the potential for a wider acceptance of satellite technology for broadcasting in Europe. In 1986, News Corp under Murdoch launched Fox in the US and started using satellite technology. News Corp planned for a $150 million in start-up losses for Fox. This prior experience with Fox and Sky Channel definitely gave Sky the upper-hand in understanding the economic of satellite broadcasting and the business requirements. BSB should have expected to witness some activity from News Corp given Murdoch‘s recent success with Fox but when Sky Television was announced in 1988, BSB was actually taken off-guard. Alternative Scenarios for Market Entry BSB on announcing its entry into the DSB market, setout to obtain $222. 5 million in financing to fund the buying and launching of the satellites. It also started the recruiting process that took almost 6 months to find a Chairman and 10 months to find a CEO. The CEO who was lured away from a high profile advertising company was awarded a total compensation package close to $0. million without any link back to performance. A year and half later BSB had only grown to several dozen employees who occupied an office in the prestigious Kensington Park area. BSB did however, understand that making the chip technology work was crucial and obtained an exclusive contract with ITT. Assuming that BSB was aware of Sky’s intentions it should accelerated the ramp up of its operations. Recruiting should have started in full earnest and compensation packages should have been built based performance (e. . successful deployment of first satellite, etc. ) BSB should have contemplated hiring key personnel from News Corporation and other broadcasting companies in the US and Europe who had more direct experience with satellite broadcasting business so as to get a leg-up in the learning process. Given that it had a â€Å"money back† guarantee from Hughes who was delivering the satellites; it should have pursued similar contracts with ITT. Maintaining a low overhead expense would also allow it to stay in the fray longer. Relocating from the swanky Kensington Park area to a cheaper alternate would help in this regard. BSB, although well supported by its founding companies could have also looked at making its economic model more attractive by reducing future capital expenditures. Leasing the high powered satellites from Hughes would have allowed it reduce its cash outlay and stay more competitive with Sky. Lastly, BSB should have lobbied the British Government to block Sky’s anticipation market entry given the underlying economics of the DSB business. Customer Adoption Concerns The rate at which customers would sign up for satellite broadcasting service is based on the price of the dish, quality of programming, value of the investment (is the technology going to change soon? ) and other macroeconomic factors like interest rates etc. The faster customers adopt the satellite technology the shorter the timeframe wherein BSB /Sky would have to incur losses. Moreover, switching costs tend to be high (the cost of the dish) and interest rates in Britain were rising in the late 1980s. BSB’s plan to sell 12† dishes at $250 (which when adjusted to today’s US dollar equals 2,500USD), represents a significant investment from the customer on a technology that is new, un-tested and whose content is unknown. Further BSB’s advertising program that aimed to increase awareness on the technology advantages of D-MAC over PAL further confused customers and backfiring BSB. Most importantly however, was the fact the BSB was the second mover in the market giving Sky the first chance at seizing market share. Differentiation of satellite broadcasting through technology BSB and Sky although targeting the same market, approached the business very differently. On one hand BSB was forced to use the risky D-MAC standard for high powered satellite signals while Sky through its use of medium powered signals was able to stay with the tried and tested low technology PAL system. Given BSB’s use of the D-MAC protocol it had no alternative but, develop chip technology that could decode the satellite signals. This resulted in BSB inheriting additional risk due to the nature of the technology development that was necessary to support BSB’s launch plan. Sky’s use of PAL although not a technology issue from a transmission standpoint posed its own technical concern in that film studios were reluctant to sell film rights given that the PAL signals could not be easily scrambled. While Sky was able to work through the scrambling issue with PAL, BSB found that its project with ITT was behind schedule. This translated into the need for an additional round of financing and the loss of a key supporter, Virgin. Longer term (ten plus years), BSB’s technology advantage should sustain itself. But this is contingent upon them being able to ride out making loses for ten years at a minimum. Short term, Sky’s choice to use PAL makes better financial sense. It will be able to establish a market presence in Britain and experiment with programming and other content as it gears up for launching HDTV (the ultimate technology goal in broadcasting ten years ago)to the broader European market. Staying the course in the DSB market With the entry of Sky into the satellite broadcasting market, BSB was forced to pull ahead some of its marketing initiatives. This was an attempt to educate the consumer on BSB’s product offering and differentiate itself from Sky’s PAL standard. BSB also hoped that the additional marketing prior to the actual launch process would increase the number of future adopters of BSB and induce some Sky consumers to switch. BSB initiated second round financing to allow it to double its advertising and promotion programs as well. Sky experienced very low sales in the six months after launch. This was attributed to equipment unavailability, customer confusion and the acroeconomic climate that existed in Britain. Sky sensing that it had an opportunity to leverage its first mover advantage, setup Project X where dishes were sold through a door-to-door sales effort. They also reduced the price barrier that prevented most consumers from adopting the technology. By selling the dishes through a lease program they were able to win more subscribers (possibly at a loss) and protect market share. This strategy of aggressively seeking customers should pay off for Sky as it boosts programming content and quality. Subscription fees for both Sky and BSB are comparable. It is the initial cost of the dish that creates reluctance on the consumer to sign up. By taking away this issue, Sky will be able to grow market share until BSB mimics this strategy. Recommendations Given BSB’s technology advantage and well funded investors it is possible that BSB could sustain the upcoming losses for some time. However, with the cash flow calculations it is clear there will be mounting pressure to change their business model by reducing capital expenditures by leasing satellites instead of purchasing. BSB should also explore reducing the price of the dish unit or establishing contracts that entice consumers with free dishes but, penalize them for breaking the contract if they cancel or switch. On the other hand Sky with its first mover advantage should build on its market share by investing in programming and using its installed base to solicit additional advertising revenue. Sky should also be concerned about how long it can continue to make losses in its bid to outlast BSB. In an effort to change the game, Sky could use the power of its parent company

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

The Election Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Election - Essay Example According to The New York Times, for republicans, the surefire pickups are Montana and West Virginia, and to some extent Dakota too. Kentucky and Arkansas are also likely to be republican giving the republicans 47 sure seats. States like Iowa, Colorado and Iowa, seem to be leaning towards republicans giving them 50 sure seats. Therefore, my guess is that republicans will secure at least 50 senate seats. If my guess is to be based on the statistics going round on the internet, then it is clear that the GOP candidate Terri Lynn Land is going to loose. According to an article found on Detroit news, the National Republican Senatorial Committee is considering thinning its funding support for her campaign race, additionally, most polls conducted show that she is well behind her competitor Democratic Congressman Gary Peters. According to a poll conducted for The Detroit News and WDIV (Channel 4), Gary Peter leads Terry Lynn 44 percent to 35 percent (Livengood). A more recent poll shows that the gap has further widened with the democratic congressman building a commanding 15 percent point lead over republican Terri Lynn (Spangler). Based on this information I would guess that Terry Lynn Land will receive around 30 percent of the votes and average of the probable polls taking into consideration factors such as margins of error and voter’s tendency to side with the winning team James Robert Redford, because of his impressive resume that encompasses the time he served with The Navy Judge Advocate General Corps, as well as his current position as a Navy Reserve. He is also widely considered efficient in the courtroom and is admired widely for his integrity, collegiality and judicial temperament. He is also a strong advocate for fairness in the courtroom. David Viviano, this is for the reason that he has on numerous occasions proven to be a capable judge, and also insightful. He is also a strong

Monday, February 3, 2020

MBA Dissertation Proposal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

MBA Dissertation Proposal - Essay Example Research objectives describe what is aimed to be accomplished by the research. Principle objective of this research is to identify the effects of recession on the global automobile industry. The research will be conducted with the objective of finding out the significant changes that have taken place in the automobile industry due to global financial turmoil. Since the financial meltdown started from the mid of 2008, the research will be carried out to find out those changes that have taken place from the year 2008 till February, 2010. Changes can only be understood when previous statistics will be compared with the present statistics. As a result it is very important to find out the situation of the industry prior to the period when there was no recession and the situation that has emerged after the recession. Finding out these situations is a major objective of the research. Recession is one of the most talked about topics in the global economic scenario over the last two years. It has affected almost all the industries in all the countries starting from developed to developing. Automobile industry is one of those industries that are badly affected by the global financial turmoil. However before getting into further details regarding the effects of recession on the industry, it is crucial to have a clear idea regarding recession, its causes and effects. This research will include a well structured literature review where all the theoretical aspects of recession will be clearly explained. The literature review will also contain the theories that are related to marketing and strategic management. Moreover the literature review includes all the theories that are related to the research methodologies and that are relevant to this particular research. Research methodology is referred to the method in which the research would be conducted. It includes research

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Influence of Magazines on Beauty | Cross-Cultural Analysis

Influence of Magazines on Beauty | Cross-Cultural Analysis INTRODUCTION Beauty is not concrete and may vary from culture to culture changing over time and shifting according to location. Beauty is an image which has been created by society to which woman and men have had to subject themselves to be real. The ideology of beauty or what is accepted as being the right appearance has been created by society and largely propagated by media. For United States of the 1950s Marilyn Monroe was the pinnacle of beauty which soon changed to Twiggy in the 1960s. While porcelain skin is valued in China, scarification of the skin and decorating it with tattoos is considered as a status symbol in Africa. Thus the physical attributes and ideas attached to beauty vary across cultures. Womens magazine industry is understood as a monolithic meaning producer, circulating magazines that contain messages and signs about the nature of femininity that serve to promote and legitimate dominant interests. (Anna Gough- Yates). A majority of feminist critics argue that media is responsible for establishing and promoting gender differences and inequalities in society. In respect media persons are considered responsible for reinforcing capitalism and patriarchy; manipulating society to attain increased circulation figures. Magazines are a great source, to study the society. Recording changes, from the purely fashion magazine couture age of 1920s, to lifestyle and home of the 1940s when domestic help was rare and woman to a personal interest in their homes. To New woman of the 1980s when woman began to work alongside men in almost every field to do it yourself of the 20th century with soaring costs and economic downturn. Magazines reflect revolutions in society and influenced the opinion of women across nations. Given the increase in trade to Asia and the spread of the beauty industry across nations, there is limited study available on how people are depicted internationally in the fashion magazines. Previous research has established that womans magazines can act as agents of publicizing gender stereotypes and beauty ideals like size zero and institutionalizing conventions like photographic poses. (Rudman and Verdi, 1993; Griffin, Viswanath, Schwartz, 1994). Yet little research has been done on the differences in representation of women internationally and locally. POWER OF IMAGES One must establish what people are looking at before one can hope to understand why under the conditions peculiar to them, they see what they see Rudolf Arnhein (Arnhein 1977:4) An image is that stimulus or representation that compels us to cognition, interpretation and personal preference. If we understand that the market is image based than we also begin to understand the importance of vision in understanding management in the information society. Images are where visual communication starts. Jonathan E. Schroeder confirms in his study of media that visual consumption is critically important for understanding contemporary consumers. Today marketing professionals are sensitive towards global customers and realise that they are enthusiastic consumers of images. Brand image, corporate image and self image are significant economic and consumer values and that global market culture is largely the construction of symbolic environments. (S. E. Jonathan, 2002) This is of great importance especially in the 21st century as the importance of marketing management and consumer research in this century may shift from problem solving to problem recognition from productio n of goods to the production of images (S. E. Jonathan, 2002) Through time marketers have learnt that markets are global which should translate into local approach. But when companies globalise they become more production driven wanting to sell more thus having common promotional strategies across cultures, sticking to one single image, hardly realising that there may be global products, but there are no global people. There may be global brands but there are no common global motivators to buy those brands. (M. De Mooij, 2009). Many brands have with the help of technology and communication tried to globalise nations. But technology has not brought a global village in which consumers all behave the same. GLOBAL MEDIA Globalisation is best defined as the crystallization of the entire world as a single place (Robertson, Ronald. 1990. Mapping the Global Condition: Globalization as the Central Concept. Theory, Culture and Society 7) Due to the success of global brands writers have predicted an unavoidable colonization of world culture by internationalised brands that would most definitely lead to demise of local cultures. However there is also evidence that suggests social relationships and values in local culture are resistant to the negative effects of globalization. On one hand globalisation is expected to destroy local cultures and bring about homogeneity while on the other hand it is also the reason for the revival of local cultural identities from various parts of the world. Today the expansion of western cultures values and ideas has reached the far corners of the world, right to Asian countries like India and China which have been dominant till the 21st century. Now that these countries have become important players in the world market, counter expansion of values and culture can also be seen. Over the past few decades there has been a rapid expansion of global brands in the media sector more than ever in the area of womans fashion magazines. Local editions of Elle, Harpers Baazar and Vogue are now being published in Asia. The internationalization of a magazine is not a new phenomenon although until quite recently the most popular womans magazines have been published locally. Harpers Bazaar, a U.S magazine launched itself in U.K. in 1929 (Anna Gough-Yates, 1993), Elle a European magazine began publishing its first edition in Japan in 1960s while Vogue a U.S magazine entered the Indian market in the 21st century. However the establishment of an integrated global media market only began in earnest in the late 1980s and did not reach its full potential until the 1990s. (Herman and Mc Chesney ,1997, p10) The latest NRS (National Readership Survey) figures suggest that the total readership market in U.K. for the months of July and December 2008 has risen by 10% since last year, while the total market for womens lifestyle and fashion magazines has grown by 7 %. (IPC Advertising) A similar trend was observed in USA where magazine subscription reached a ten year high in 2008 and with the total number of magazines published reaching 20,590 the total percentage of subscriptions also increased by 1.4% (MPA Magazine Publishers of America, ABC) Comparatively in Asia according to a PricewaterhouseCoopers the Asia/Pacific magazine market excluding Japan is projected to grow by 7.2% annually, reaching $20.7 billion by 2010, Advertising is also expected to rise by 5% annually to $8.1 billion in 2010. This means theres plenty of potential for countries in South Asia, where advertising spending is just about 0.34% of GDP. Until now foreign brands were allowed only 26% ownership when venturing into Asian countries. But in 2005 most of the Asian countries levelled the field for non news publications allowing 100% foreign direct investment. (D. Ruth, 2007, Forbes) In an age looking towards the internet for all information and goods there is a risk that print media and magazine subscriptions may fall contrary to predictions. A recent research conducted by PPA marketing suggests that the internet does not have any harmful effect on peoples desire to read offline, in fact in some cases reading websites encourages them to read magazines. Out of 1500 adults between the age of 18- 34 surveyed online revealed that peoples expectations and goals from each medium depends on the subject matter and for the subject of beauty and fashion print magazines are an obvious choice. Also the idea of owning a piece of fashion history through the beautifully photographed and styled images in fashion magazines makes print media a lucrative choice. With fashion going cross cultures, print media being the apparent choice of the masses to keep them in trend and the governments giving publication houses the clear there is nothing stopping international fashion magazines going local. Like all the other global media, magazines use many different strategies to cross the borders. The main reasons for crossing borders are saturation of home markets and to generate revenue by providing international consumer brands with advertising vehicles that reach into the expanding foreign markets'(Dr. Katherine Frith, 2006,pg4-5). For example Condà © Nast which has a portfolio of 127 magazines in 23 countries had to close down Mademoiselle in November 2001 due to competition, flagging sales and saturation of magazine houses. Markets with rising economic rates like Asia and Middle East, as a result have become a target for westerns producers of beauty and fashion magazines. FASHION MAGAZINES AND THEIR IMPACT Many women across cultures are influenced by general trends in fashion and follow although at a distance the fashion industry. The relationship between consumers and trends is complex but it is mediated by fashion magazines. The difference between international fashion magazines and their local versions is that the international issues tend to carry a predominance of images for multinational products. (Shaw, 1999). Such magazines are growing in popularity in Asia and this popularity has bought about a change in perspective regarding the depiction of woman and products in local magazines. Griffin, Viswanath, and Schwartz(1994) found in a study comparing images in weekly U.S. news magazines (Time and Life) to weekly Indian magazines (India Today and Illustrated weekly of India), that many of the western advertising principles and poses for women were being conveyed across nations. They confirmed that female models in India were taking on poses that related closely to gender portrayals of the advanced western nations. A recent analysis of magazines international and local in China by Frith, Cheng and Shaw (2004) suggests that Caucasian models are more frequently shown in seductive dresses than Asian models. Feminist critiques like Kates, Shaw and Garlock (1999) would argue that western magazines are cultural institutions that represent women in a problematic and often unacceptable way although attractive female bodies and sexual content have for long been used in the west to draw consumers to a product and generate interest. Comparing this to the representation of woman across cultures with reference to the few studies conducted on the topic; Griffin, Viswanath and Schwartz (1994) concluded that the use of Sexual pursuit as a theme was used three times more often in American magazines than magazines in India. In conservative Asian countries like Malaysia and Indonesia only Caucasian women were used in Lingerie advertisements (Frith and Mueller, 2003). Any magazine wanting to be resonant with its target audience needs to represent the social norms and cultural values of the given society. International magazines like Vogue and Elle although have publishing houses in Asian countries most often train their employees in the west. The result being that the forms of representation and especially that of woman can take on a globalized look. As Kyung-Ja Lee,(2000, pg 86) has rightly said for thirty years, media have been taken to task for reproducing and reinforcing stereotyped images of woman. Yet unfair representation of woman in media still prevails worldwide. Sex stereotyping has been so deeply ingrained, even glorified, that the woman themselves have become desensitised to their own inferior portrayal. The prospects appear even gloomier as the globalisation of media progresses Previous researchers have noted that the images of models used in magazines have been extensively retouched to represent the ideal of beauty that is unattainable for all but a very few people.(Greer,1999). By showing models that are uniformly thin, flawless and perfectly proportioned the media may contribute towards low self esteem and unhappiness among woman and give rise to problems like eating disorders.( Gauntlett, 2002) Media is also considered a large contributor to the global increase in plastic surgery to change physical appearance among young girls (Lee, 2007). With most models used in international magazines being white the publications are rarefying the ethnic beauty ideals. In fact the obsession with whitening products may be a result of this overuse of White models in Asian publications. Finally as global media takes readers away from local publications and changing Asian beauty ideals it is important to study the impact of international beauty ideal on local consumers. The Asian society has predominantly been a conservative society yet with the onset of westernisation this society is changing and adapting itself. But as Marieke de Mooij states, product usage or acceptance does not change overnight, as peoples behaviour is stable . A new idea or concept is only accepted when it is consistent to a change in society and does not imply a fundamental change in culture. Essay 2: THE VOGUE IMPACT This essay will discuss Vogue magazines cover page and its relationship with its brand identity. Can the brand successfully globalised by altering its cover page image, based on cultural and social variants in each of its markets? Would standardisation of the brands cover page images and visual identity help to avoid criticism on its entry into a new market? VOGUE BEGINING Started in 1982 Vogue magazine is predominantly an American cultural phenomenon. It began as a social weekly periodical and nurtured into a professional and confident monthly publication under the leadership of Condà © Nast which took over vogue in 1909. Primarily as a lifestyle magazine catering to both men and woman Vogue has come a long way to be at the pinnacle as the fashion magazine for woman in vogue (David, A., 2006). In an age where French fashion was considered the ultimate Vogue managed to put American Couture on the map. Under the Condà © Nast umbrella the magazine not only managed to become a brand name in its own country but also exported fashion ideas to the world. Today Condà © Nast which has a portfolio of 127 magazines in 23 countries believes Vogue to be its cash cow. At present there are a million fashion and beauty magazines such as In Style, Elle and Cosmopolitan circulated around the globe, but in times of crises citizens all over turn to Vogue to confirm the latest fashion news. With readership and subscription levels of about 220,000 a month for the British Vogues, 133,000 a month for the French Vogue and American Vogue, at 1.2 million a month Vogue is the leading magazine in the business of fashion. (IPC Advertising reports) The once small publication eventually became an international phenomenon with issues being published in more than 12 countries. YEAR OF LAUNCH COUNTRY /EDITION 1916 British Vogue 1918 Spanish Vogue 1920 French Vogue 1924-1926 Argentinean Vogue 1928 German Vogue 1964 Italian Vogue 1975 Brazilian Vogue 1994 Singapore Vogue 1996 Korean Vogue 1996 Taiwanese Vogue 1999 Japanese Vogue 1999 Latin American Vogue 2000 Greek Vogue 2005 Chinese Vogue 2007 Indian Vogue Since its birth the magazine has strived to serve the society by portraying an example of proper etiquette, beauty, composure and fashion. The magazine not only plays a role in setting latest trends but also records the changes in cultural thinking, actions and clothing through its images. Looking at Vogue through the ages it can be clearly seen that it is also a documentation of the changing roles of woman, and the influences of cultural ideas and politics over time. The power the Vogue magazine has over generations of women has inspired many new magazines like Cosmopolitan and Glamour; all interested in its market share. In spite of this great quantity of magazines circulating around the globe, considering circulation figures and media impact no other publication has managed to accomplish the lasting power and success of Vogue. (David, R., 2007) VOGUE IMAGE Self definition has always been crucial to vogue. (David, A., 2006). Throughout its first 30 years vogue editors and illustrators made use of the French meaning of vogue, defined in the first dictionary of the Acadà ©mie Franà §aise (1694) as the impulsion or movement of a galley or other ship by the force of rowing. It was only in the 18th century that vogue and fashion were listed as synonyms (Fà ©raud 1787–8). Since its first issue Vogue magazine has been personified as a youthful young woman. The magazines first cover presented itself in the disguise of a debutante, a young socialite. When Condà © Nast bought the magazine in 1909 he brought it into line with other successful publishing ventures and in just over a decade, circulation went from 14,000 to 150,000 while advertising revenue soared from $76,111 to two million dollars (Robinson 1923: 170). He modernised the magazine not just the content but also the cover. He replaced the black and white drawings of the front cover with commissioned, lavish, stylised and signed illustrations. This change helped to attract attention to the magazine and increase circulations. As an advertising man, he understood the value of having a visual brand or logo and Nast revived the original Vogue trademark, a distinguished little sketch which immediately became known as the Vogue girl (David, A., 2006). This first Vogue girl was just an illustration cla d in a fancy dress with the than fashionable leg-o-mutton sleeves. Her unnatural ivory white skin, snow white wig, tiny waist and voluptuous bosom, was directed at the fantasies of the magazines readers (David, A., 2006).The Vogue girl represented the heritage of those Americans who wished to be different from the New World Americans and was constantly seen as wearing historical costumes and heirlooms. Than too the new world American woman aspired to look like her. All this changed in the 1920s when the Vogue girl was changed to an illustration by Georges Lepape. This new image was more streamlined and represented the woman at the heights of fashion in the 1920s. Vogue had gone from importing fashion to exporting it. As times changed so did the magazine cover from illustrations to photographs, making models like Cindy Crawford and celebrities like Madonna a household name. This change in its image was a response to the internationalisation of the magazine. Today the vogue cover girls are the most glamorous, exotic, unusual and popular persons of the moment. The trend being more towards actresses than models dressed in the heights of fashion, styled by the best stylist and clicked by A-list photographers they are every girls aspiration and every boys fantasy. Like its cover girls the magazines is considered to be glamorous, glossy and trendy. (Alexandra Shulman, Vogue U.K. editor). Despite of having these factors common among them, the vogue covers are dissimilar in many aspects depending upon its country of publication. CULTURE AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR Anglo –Saxon psychological research states that the concept of self and personality are the basis of Western consumer behaviour. The words identity or personality have no fixed meaning in the Asian culture. A global brand needs to consider the cultural differences to truly succeed in the world field. A number of research experts and cultural studies suggest that a brand should think global, act local. This is based upon the theory that the way people think and perceive any brand or image is guided by the framework of their own culture (Mooij, M, 2009). The observation of Japanese individuality as a sign of westernisation of the country is a misconception of many global brands. For more than a decade international magazines have been accused of standardising a beauty ideal across the globe with disregard to the individual cultural and beauty ideals of the host country. For a short duration the values and attributes of a foreign or global personality might have a strong attraction, but ultimately people return to their own local values and culture. For a Brazilian woman the emphasis is on her bottom, um corpo de violà £o which literally means a guitar shaped body is most desirable. No matter how many international magazines showcase buxom beauties, the Brazilian woman would ultimately want a bigger bottom as the point of attraction is the sweet swing of the hips. The illustration of a desirable Japanese woman in The memoirs of a Gesha suggest, that the Japanese appreciate soft delicate feminine features, small feet and long hair cut in layers. A slim slender graceful body is more desirable than a curvaceous one. In Islamic countries the body is considered a n obstacle in viewing ones true beauty. Any bodily decorations or changes are considered a veil over the inner beauty and the Hijab is another veil to conceal these changes so that the womans only public identity would be her inner self. For the Greek it has been symmetry in structure and features, based on Platos ideas that, beauty is that which irradiates symmetry rather than symmetry itself. The Nuba tribe in Sudan like dark skin and hairlessness. On studying traditional Indian paintings it can be concluded that the Indian ideals of beauty in a woman is voluptuousness, with the belly and hips being of prominence.( Ei, 2008) The image and identity associated with woman of different geographical locations are deep rooted in their respective cultures. The beauty ideals and a womans self image in any culture can be understood by studying its paintings, sculpture and artistic representations. Today the artistic or idealistic representations of women are magazine covers, images and pho to spreads. These covers are also considered a mode of advertisement for the magazine within that culture. As Steve Taylor has rightly put in his book 100 years of magazine covers it is hard to identify another cultural artefact which embodies an advertisement for itself in such a powerful way. Magazine covers can be breathtaking, beautiful, confrontational, resonant, heartbreaking, stimulating, irritating and uplifting. At their best they come together as a kind of spontaneous street level exhibition, publicly displaying the work of some of our best creative talent, featuring what is most admirable and dismissible about the modern world, communicating the people and events that shape our culture. Apart from a mode of advertisement of todays culture a magazine cover plays a dual function of advertising the magazine brand itself. An impressive cover encourages people to flip through the magazine and buy it. (Alexandra Shulman, British Vogue editor). Getting the magazine cover right is not only ethically important but also financially important to the magazine in order to develop brand loyalty and increased circulations. Thus making it important to study magazine covers as a mode of advertisement and part of the marketing mix, for a magazine publication. MAGAZINE COVERS AS BRAND VISUAL IDENTITY It is a common assumption that an advertisement would be effective if the viewer decodes the advertisement successfully, if there is a significant transfer of attributes. (Mooij, M., 2009). Thus while developing one idea for a global brand or one single motivator for different cultures, one should not assume that the responses would be alike too. An idea being interpreted accurately by the consumers would only happen if the senders and receivers share one culture. If they do not share the same cultural values it may result in misunderstandings and demeaning of brand value within that culture. For example consider the inaugural Vogue covers of India and China. The Indian Vogue cover was styled by the magazines British fashion director while the Chinese vogue was styled by French Vogue editor Carine Roitfeld (China economic net and Fashion week daily dispatch). The covers were not rightly decoded by the consumers and received much criticism. Whereas the covers for the preceding months styled by Anaita Shroff Adajania the fashion director for Vogue India was highly appreciated.(Fashion week daily dispatch) The essence of a brand is that it is a name in the memory of consumers. It is a perceptual map of positive and negative associations, a symbolic language, and a network of associations. (Mooij, M.,2009). Vogue with its launch in many Asian countries received much negative associations with its local issues. The local Asian issues of Vogue are considered small ripples in the big pond of Fashion magazines (Armstrong ,L, 2009) and they could never manage to create the impact that American vogue or Italian Vogue have managed to create world over. Vogue India or Vogue China might be sold worldwide but it is not necessary that consumers in all countries consider them global brands. One theory suggests that a global brand is a brand that is strongly associated with its country of origin (Mooij, M., 2009) and for Vogue its been America. This can be considered positive if the country of origin has a stable global identity. With American values becoming ambiguous and Vogue bifurcating into mul tiple countries over time its core identity may be threatened. The idea of incorporating local aesthetics with their global image might dilute the brands global image. STANDARDISATION A multinational companys personality and identity are the biggest factors influencing consumer (Eales, 1990 as cited in Melewar,T.C, Saunders, J., 1998). Unrestricted global trade, a competitive marketplace and the fast technological developments have created a situation where consumers dont just buy the product they also buy the company that produces it. The brands character, its identity, its image and the confidence it inspires in them help in making the choice between two almost similar product offerings in the market. At the centre of any business and its projected image is its corporate visual identity system. The elements of this system are: name, symbol, and/or logo, typography, colour and slogan (Dowling, 1994). These elements help to sell the company to consumers and its stakeholders. Corporate identity programs have risen due to globalisation (Ind, 1992). The changing business tactics, geographical locations, variations in cultures and changing markets have all encouraged companies to change their corporate identity. As companies begin to operate on an international basis, the image that they acquired as national producers often becomes inappropriate (Mills, 1988 as cited in Melewar,T.C, Saunders, J., 1998). Some international companies adopt a unified brand image in spite of government and consumer displeasure. The degree of de-standardisation of any company depends upon the strength of the host countries culture, government policies and target market. (Mooij, M., 2009). The decision to standardise a brand image also depends upon the competitive edge derived in either keeping activities central or decentralizing them. However a brand like Vogue that has a truly global orientation needs to express consistent brand values wherever it chooses to compete. Thus making its worldwide image more recognisable for its homogeneity than not. A major component of a corporate identity is the corporate structure. (Strong, 1987) According to Ind (1992) there exist two corporate identities, one that is the organisational structure and the other that is the visual structure. The Visual structure is concerned with the branding of the product, and how it appears to the consumers. (Gray Smeltzer, 1985 as cited in Melewar, T.C., Saunders, J., 1998). The basic concern with the visual structure is the degree of centralisation and decentralisation. Thus the basic problem faced by Vogue is whether to sell an identical product image to all its consumers or to make modifications as per the local differences. A global brand can be a mass brand satisfying a common product need in all the countries or it can be a brand catering to a common niche in all the countries. Vogue magazine has two options, being a global brand it could standardize the brand and the brand image across the globe so that the Indian woman reading the Indian Vogue would feel equal to the French or American woman reading their respective Vogues. The other option it has is to go local, differentiate between its offerings and treat each market as an individual and not a global product while standardising its visual image, giving the impression of a common brand. Researchers argue that standardisation of a brand helps the company to achieve a uniform image internationally which in turn increases sales.(Buzzell, 1968, Hovells Walters, 1972 as cited in Melewar, T.C., Saunders, J., 1998) . Others were of the opinion that standardisation makes consumers familiar with the product, its services, business diversities and competitive distinction thus helping to establish a uniform corporate image.(Peebles et al ,1977 as cited in Melewar, T.C., Saunders, J., 1998). Cosmopolitan for example is known around the globe to address personal and sex related issues as it does not change its editorials and articles depending on culture. The band logo/ font type, position or style does not differ according to geographical locations. The brand has achieved a sense of standardisation by not having a distinct country name printed on its cover unlike Vogue. The research on global corporate visual identity systems by T.C. Melewar and John Saunders (1998) proved that firms with highly standardised corporate visual identity systems (CVIS) saw themselves reaping more reward from their CVIS than did those with low CVIS standardisation. All custom

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Chichen Itza

Chichen Itza (pronounced /tÊÆ'iË Ã‹Ë†tÊÆ'É›n iË Ã‹Ë†tsÉ‘Ë /;[1] from Yucatec Maya: Chi'ch'à ¨en ÃÅ'itsha',[2] â€Å"at the mouth of the well of the Itza†) is a large pre-Columbian archaeological site built by the Maya civilization located in the northern center of the Yucatà ¡n Peninsula, in the Yucatà ¡n state, present-day Mexico. Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the northern Maya lowlands from the Late Classicthrough the Terminal Classic and into the early portion of the Early Postclassic period. The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, from what is called â€Å"Mexicanized† and reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico to the Puuc style found among the Puuc Maya of the northern lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion. The ruins of Chichen Itza are federal property, and the site’s stewardship is maintained by Mexico’s Instituto Nacional de Antropologà ­a e Historia (National Institute of Anthropology and History, INAH). The land under the monuments had been privately-owned until March 29, 2010, when it was purchased by the state of Yucatan.[3] he Maya name â€Å"Chich'en Itza† means â€Å"At the mouth of the well of the Itza.† This derives fromchi', meaning â€Å"mouth† or â€Å"edge†, and ch'e'en, meaning â€Å"well.† Itzà ¡ is the name of an ethnic-lineage group that gained political and economic dominance of the northern peninsula. The name is believed to derive from the Maya itz, meaning â€Å"magic,† and (h)à ¡, meaning â€Å"water.† Itzà ¡ in Spanish is often translated as â€Å"Brujas del Agua (Witches of Water)† but a moNorthern Yucatà ¡n is arid, and the rivers in the interior all run underground. There are two large, natural sink holes, called cenotes, that could have provided plentiful water year round at Chichen, making it attractive for settlement. Of the two cenotes, the â€Å"Cenote Sagrado† or Sacred Cenote(also variously known as the Sacred Well or Well of Sacrifice), is the most famous. According to post-Conquest sources (Maya and Spanish), pre-Columbian Maya sacrificed objects and human beings into the cenote as a form of worship to the Maya rain god Chaac. Edward Herbert Thompson dredged the Cenote Sagrado from 1904 to 1910, and recovered artifacts of gold, jade,pottery, and incense, as well as human remains.[7] A recent study of human remains taken from the Cenote Sagrado found that they had wounds consistent with human sacrifice.[8]

Friday, January 10, 2020

Jane Austen’s Portrayal of Darcy in Pride and Prejudice Essay

Mr Darcy is, in a single word, our hero. He is everything we should hate, in fact everything Lizzy does hate, but also everything we find irresistible. He is both interesting and enigmatic and his appeal stems from the fact that to understand him you have to delve down deeper. Jane Austen’s success in portraying him well is due to her style of writing. She teases, giving only snips of information. To put together a character you must build up what you know- which usually isn’t much. What is also engaging about her portrayal of Darcy is that we initially only see him through Lizzy’s prejudiced eyes. Darcy’s negative points are focused on and it’s only really on completion of the novel that you realise he isn’t who he is thought to be. This is very clever on Jane Austen’s part as the reader is always left wanting more. We are first introduced to Darcy in Chapter Three. Mr Bingley is first introduced- he is â€Å"good looking† and has â€Å"unaffected manners†. Also he has fine sisters with a â€Å"decided air†. However all this cannot help but pale in comparison when his friend is brought to the attention of the room. He grabs attention with â€Å"his fine, tall person, handsome features, noble mien†. It is also swiftly reported that he has ten thousand a year- making him a very eligible catch for any young woman (especially any of the five Bennet girls). However, within the same praising paragraph, another side is exposed. People are disgusted with his manners, â€Å"He was discovered to be proud, to be above his company, and above being pleased†. Here Jane Austen is already doing what she does best. Darcy has overshadowed his companions but he isn’t allowed his glory as the follow up is less than pleasing. This leads us to believe that Darcy is not blessed with his friends virtues- pleasantness and joy- but is fact vain and arrogant. Jane Austen starts us down a particular way of thinking and I believe it is a deliberate attempt to deceive us. It makes Darcy’s true nature all the more surprising. Ten he is overheard to have called Lizzy â€Å"tolerable† which is a despicable crime as she is our heroine and the one we feel closest to. Another shrewd move by Austen- first impression always last. Which is ironic because Darcy later talks of how fragile his good opinion is. What we know of Darcy now will constantly affect what we later discover. In Chapter Five Darcy’s behaviour is brought up in Lizzy’s conversation with Charlotte Lucas. This is most probably the topic of conversation for every lady present at the ball and it shows that Darcy is definitely a man to be talked about.. Only once we have formed an opinion of Darcy does Austin make it known that he find something very lovely in â€Å"the beautiful expression of her dark eyes†. However he puts down his feelings because she has not the suitable means to ever be anything to him. Once more Darcy’s pride and vanity surpasses what could have been a great virtue- affection for our heroine. It is obvious he likes her- he offer’s to dance with her although he gets no pleasure out of it- but his reserve and pride means his true, sensitive nature is covered up. Also we must remember that her portrayal of Darcy would have been affected by the period. Many criticise Darcy’s detachment from open feelings and his aloofness toward Lizzy but at this time formality was required of gentlemen. It may seem now that his attitude is rude and hostile but declarations of passion were not commonplace. Men of this time had to have absolute self-control. Which makes Bingley’s behaviour all the more pleasing and Darcy’s behaviour all the more surprising. Bingley is not at all formal but generous, open and very hospitable whereas Darcy, his closest companion, is still holding back. It surprising the reader that some of Bingley’s kindness hasnà ¢â‚¬â„¢t rubbed off on Darcy. Something which gives a hint of Darcy’s true nature is his attitude toward Miss Bingley. She has the same social standing as he and is the type of woman he was brought up to marry. She is also aware of the fact that Lizzy is , bluntly speaking, of a much lower social standing than he should marry. However he is not at all drawn into nastiness by her verbal attacks on others- â€Å"He listened to her with perfect indifference†. He lacks a cruel streak but is simply honest, if somewhat lacking in subtlety. What he doesn’t lack is modesty- especially where Mr Wickham is concerned. In Chapter Eighteen the pair dance and they discuss Wickham briefly. Darcy could have told Lizzy everything, recommending himself over Wickham and earning points. However he didn’t take advantage of the situation, preferring to wait until Chapter Thirty Seven when he writes to Lizzy. His proposal could have been a very successful event had his pride not stepped in and dwelt on the i nferiority of her family. There was a sense that great passion and feeling was behind the offer but again Austen degrades him using his incredible weakness- his pride. But even that doesn’t cushion him from the wound of her rejection. We feel maybe Darcy is human after all. His letter is what clinches this suspicion. This is raw Darcy- but even this is restrained. It is also very open and could turn the whole plot around. The proud man at Netherfield, who could well prove Wickham’s account of him, has not gone totally but is much reduced. He is still vaguely proud and reserved- â€Å"I write without any intention of paining you or humbling myself†- but he has lost the requirement he felt to be discrete about Wickham. He feels comfortable enough with Lizzy to be honest. This firmly suggests that his feelings are true as we know how little he discloses to anyone. Even this letter ends with a blessing, so even after rejection he is not the ogre he appears to be. I think Jane Austen had him write the letter immediately after he is rejected to prove that he has been humbled, looking at himself with the criticism Lizzy had of him. It makes us think better of him but we still struggle, as Lizzys does, with how he usually appears- so haughty and conceited. Austen doesn’t clear him of all charges which is clever as it adds more to the story if Darcy stays a little mysterious. Towards the end we are able to get a fuller picture of Darcy. When Lizzy goes to Pemberly with her aunt and uncle she gets her first, first-hand account of Darcy she has really had. His housekeeper, with no reason to lie, talks easily of his good-nature and thoughtfulness towards others. It surprises Lizzy but she doesn’t dismiss the idea- the letter has rattled her- and the reader’s- firm opinion of his hateful character. When she meets Darcy out walking he leads on from this description by politely addressing her relatives., inviting her uncle to fish with him and of course asking, most humbly, if he may introduce his sister to Lizzy. Here he is in his own territory and has no need to put up a front so he relaxes and becomes very amiable. In the next chapter we meet his sister and we know at once that Wickham has been lying as she is shy, gentle and unassuming. I think at this point Lizzy is feeling real shame for her presumptions and maybe after seeing Pemberly and Georgiana, slight regret in her total dismissal of Darcy. He has done more than enough to clear his name. Despite this he is kinder still when he learns of Lizzy’s family’s disgrace concerning Lydia’s elopement. Darcy could have turned away- it would have probably been in his best interests if he hadn’t got involved but his love for our heroine means he will do whatever it takes to ease her suffering. And he even has the grace and modesty to let Mr Gardiner take the credit for the money he laid down for the marriage. Here Austen does nothing to make his good deed bad- this time he is without fault She is allowing us to see Darcy in his rightful form. And coupled with his active role in preventing Wickham from marrying Georgiana we see he is truly a gentleman. His second proposal is certainly the best image we have of him- and rightly so. He is warm and compassionate, acknowledging his beastly behaviour, explaining it and apologising for it. I think Austen intends us to believe Lizzy is what Darcy needed to check his pride and overcome his shyness. Which makes the coupling all the more perfect. What is so good about Jane Austen’s portrayal of Darcy is that he is exactly what Lizzy needed in a husband. He is quick and can match her wit- smiling when she gets the better of him. They fit together perfectly, complementing all the best qualities in each other. Throughout the novel Jane Austen uses the character of Darcy and develops it in all the best ways. He maintains an air of mystery throughout until the end where we are all pleased with the result. Beautifully done.